In June 1858, the newly established divorce court in London heard the case of Robinson vs Robinson and Lane. Henry Robinson was seeking a divorce from his wife, Isabella Robinson, on the grounds that she had committed adultery with Edward Lane, a physician who ran a water-cure spa called Moor Park. As evidence, Henry Robinson presented his wife’s diary, in which she chronicled her long-standing affection for Edward Lane and their eventual affair. InMrs. Robinson’s Disgrace: The Private Diary of a Victorian Lady, Kate Summerscale uses the story of the diary and the divorce as a jumping-off point for discussing life, health, marriage, and sex among the upper classes in Victorian England.
Having recently read a couple of pre-Victorian novels about women and their romantic desires, I was struck by how similar Isabella Robinson was to these fictional women. She’s romantic and passionate and feels ill-used by society. Sometimes her romantic expressions, like those of Emma Courtney, seem over the top, but given her husband’s treatment of her, it’s not surprising that she felt desperate for affection. From the very start, it’s evident that Henry Robinson married Isabella for her money. Isabella brought a good deal of money of her own into the marriage, and Henry arranged their finances so that all of her money would be funneled through him. He had a mistress and two illegitimate children and spend much of his time away from home, working. When he was home, he was “sulky” and critical of Isabella’s management of the household. Isabella wrote in her journal of one incident:
Read to children after dinner, and then had a long discussion with him as to the causes of his discontent. He railed at the servants, wanted a man-servant (with whom he would disagree in a month); wanted a study; wished I was a more active housekeeper; complained of cold, and planned how to spend less of his time here and more in London.
Of course, most of what we know of Henry comes from the existing extracts from Isabella’s journal and newspaper reports of the trial, so it’s impossible to know just how typical of him such behavior was, but Henry does not come across as an ideal husband.
Although Isabella’s recounting of her relationship with Edward Lane and the Robinsons’ eventual divorce forms the narrative core of this book, Summerscale does not focus entirely on the Robinsons and Lane. She uses their story as a framework and surrounds it with digressions into a variety of related issues. When, for example, Edward Lane begins his work at Moor Park, Summerscale takes the opportunity to write about water cures. She delves into theories about women’s sexuality and what the then-popular “science” of phrenology revealed about desire and temperament. When the lives of the Robinsons and Lanes intersect with notable figures, such as Charles Darwin, a patient at Moor Park, Summerscale points out those connections. She also draws in literature of the time, such as Madame Bovary, The Sorrows of Young Werther, and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, showing readers how ideas that come up in the Robinsons’ story are reflected also in the wider culture.
Although I suspect that readers who are mostly interested in the “scandalous” material presented in Isabella’s diary will find these digressions tedious, I was fascinated. To me, the Robinson story is interesting not so much because it is unusual, but because it reveals so much about mid-Victorian life and thought. And Summerscale hardly ever seems to be reaching to make these connections. She relies on the historical record, rather than on her own speculations and opinions about what happened or should have happened.
One of my favorite digressions involved the act of diary-making itself. We learn that the worddiaristwas first coined in 1818, and diary-writing had become something of a craze, with the publication of fictional and actual diaries on the rise. But whether published or not, the act of keeping a diary could alter the life of the diary-keeper:
Diaries (from the Latin dies) and journals (from the French jour) were by definition daily records, yet their air of immediacy could be misleading. They could only approximate real time, as they could only shadow and catch at the feelings that they sought to pin down. A diary worked upon its author, tending to intensify her emotions and alter her perceptions.
As a sometime diarist myself, I’ve noticed that journaling sometimes causes me to dwell on and obsess over certain aspects of my life when I’d be better off just getting on with life. With this in mind, I wondered whether Isabella Robinson’s writing about her feelings for Edward Lane made those feelings even more intense. The diary provided the impetus for the divorce, but might it also have been behind the affair itself?
The book’s final chapters cover the divorce trial. Because the divorce laws had just changed, you get the sense that the lawyers and judges were still feeling their way. At one point, the court determines that the diary could not be used as evidence against Edward Lane but that it was admissible as evidence against Isabella Robinson, creating the preposterous situation in which Isabella might be found guilty and Edward innocent of an act they committed together, if they committed it at all.
Mrs Robinson’s Disgrace is exactly the kind of history I enjoy reading. It’s the kind of story you won’t find in many history books, but it touches on so many aspects of Victorian life that it gives you a real taste of the time. Using this one marriage as a framework enables Summerscale to create a storyline with characters whose lives readers want to follow, making the book more engaging than a compendium of facts about Victorian life might be. It’s a terrific read.
I definitely want to read this one!!! Thanks for the review!
I put this on my to read list as soon as I heard of it. I just love reading about that time period. I’m glad to hear it’s as good as I hoped!
If you’re like reading about the period, changes are very good you’ll find something of interest here!
I have read so many diverse reviews of this book, from those written by readers such as yourself who have really appreciated it, to the other extreme from those who have been bitterly disappointed. Clearly, there is only one thing to do, which is to read it myself. I did thoroughly enjoy her earlier book, ‘The Suspicions of Mr Whicher’, which I set for the Summer School two years ago.
I hadn’t seen any disappointed reviews (I hadn’t seen many reviews at all, really), but I just took at look at Goodreads, and I get the impression that the digressions did bother some people, as did the lack of details about certain aspects of the story. Those are the very things I liked about it! The digressions were fascinating, and I was happy that Summerscale didn’t try to feel in too many gaps with rampant speculation. I wonder too if it just isn’t as good as Suspicions of Mr Whicher, which I haven’t read and know lots of people love.
I really enjoyed this review, especially your speculation about what role the act of keeping a diary plays in shaping our emotions and, indirectly, our actions. I know that I find myself distracted at times mentally composing a Facebook status update or a blog post when I might otherwise be living in the moment, but it hadn’t occurred to me that, by doing so, I was creating a narrative for the event as it was happening. Journaling isn’t quite so immediate (I’m not the type who jots things down in her Moleskine constantly) and hopefully not so public, but I can see how it can have a similar effect of shaping the narrative of our lives, emphasizing one aspect and de-emphasizing another, finding (or creating) patterns, and just in general supporting one course of action over another.
Wow, I can chew on this for hours. And, of course, journal about it later! Thanks for such a juicy bit to ponder!
I’ve caught myself composing updates like that too, which is weird because I’m hardly ever on Facebook anymore. The thing that I found when I journaled regularly is that I’d make myself think about things in order to have something to write, and I think sometimes I was manufacturing my own angst. It can be good for working out my feelings, but I got to the point where I felt it was better a lot of the time to just let go and stuff and not worry about it so much.
Like Alex, I’ve seen some diverse reviews, so I’m also glad to read yours. For some reason, I had thought this was a novel, that she was putting her excellent research in the period to a different use. I’m more interested now knowing that it’s non-fiction.
It’s written almost in the style of a novel, because it tells a story, and there’s some suspense to it, but it’s nonfiction.
I put this on hold at the library as soon as I read the first review and am really looking forward to it. Like you, I find the digressions & extrapolations much more interesting than salacious diary entries. A couple of the reviews I read seemed to imply that Mrs. Robinson really didn’t have a physical affair with her doctor, it was all in her imagination and diary.
I hope you enjoy it. I was very impressed! It’s true that it’s never 100% clear whether they had an affair, and Summerscale presents the arguments for both sides. I happen to think the argument that they didn’t is the weaker one, but who knows?
A fine indepth review. Thanks for sharing
You’re welcome :)
So glad you enjoyed it! I felt just the same. I think that what makes Summerscale such a good non-fiction writer is the quality of her digressions. They never feel arbitrary or forced, but add such illumination to her main topic. I don’t think that’s easy to do, but her eye is very astute.
I agree that it’s not easy to do, and I was very impressed with how well Summerscale handled all the different types of information.
I recently finished and loved “Mr Whicher” and have now put this book on hold at the library. Thanks for the review.
I’ve had Mr Whicher on my TBR list ever since it came out, and the fact that this was so good makes me more eager to finally read it!
I really enjoyed her disgressions too. And as a historian I was fascinated by how she manages to write such appealing “novel-like” non-fiction accounts. Nevertheless, there were moments where I would have liked to see more analysis. But overall, I’m still a little bit in awe of how good her writing is. I definitely have to read “Mr Whicher”.
Her writing is terrific. I was so impressed with how coherent, yet how detailed the whole story was.
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This sounds absolutely fascinating. I am going to pick up this book ASAP. Thank you for your informative post.
It was fascinating. Hope you enjoy it!
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